Human Eye Anatomy Pdf

The association is such as to allow messages in the bipolar cells to be transmitted to the ganglion cells, the messages then passing out along the axons of the ganglion cells as optic nerve messages. The blood vessels of the sclera are largely confined to a superficial layer of tissue, and these, along with the conjunctival vessels, are responsible for the bright redness of the inflamed eye. Opening of the eye is not just the result of passive relaxation of the orbicularis muscle but also is the effect of the contraction of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle of the upper lid. Some of the fibres separate from the main stream and run to a midbrain centre called the pretectal nucleus, which is a relay centre for pupillary responses to light. The eye is kept moist by secretions of the lacrimal glands tear glands.

Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The muscle of Riolan, lying close to the lid margins, contributes to keeping the lids in close apposition. It is the light sensitive part of the eye. Closure of the lids is achieved by contraction of the orbicularis muscle, a single oval sheet of muscle extending from the regions of the forehead and face and surrounding the orbit into the lids. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

It is divided into orbital and palpebral portions, and it is essentially the palpebral portion, within the lid, that causes lid closure. Each gland has two portions. Muscles of the eye are very strong and efficient, they work together to move the eyeball in many different directions. The other portion projects into the back part of the upper lid. Thank you for your feedback.

The cells may wander, and it is these movements of the pigment cells that determine the changes in coloration seen in some people with alterations in health. The fibrous basis of the stroma is collagen. From the fornix, the tears flow down across the eye and into the puncta lacrimalia, small openings at the margin of each eyelid near its inner corner.

Definition Structure & Function

Definition Structure & Function

The eye and visual nervous system anatomy physiology and toxicology

It contains the axons of retina ganglion cell nerve cells of the retina and it transmits impulses from the retina to the brain. In the inner plexiform layer are the axons of the bipolar cells and the dendritic processes of the ganglion and amacrine cells see below. The result is a depression, the foveal pit, where light has an almost unrestricted passage to the light-sensitive cells.

The eye and visual nervous system anatomy physiology and toxicology

The cilliary muscles are located inside the ciliary body. The fovea has a high concentration of cones. Journal List Environ Health Perspect v. It really helped my friend Tom Rylie when he was trying to find info about the eye to help his wife Agnis with her far-sided eye. The posterior part of the uvea, the choroid, is essentially a layer of blood vessels and connective tissue sandwiched between the sclera and the retina.

Human Eye Anatomy (seen from above)

The centre of this ring is called the pupil. It is the white and opaque part of the eyeball. The choroid is the middle layer of the eyeball located between the sclera and the retina. Tear Duct This is a small tube that runs from the eye to the nasal cavity.

The eye and visual nervous system anatomy physiology and toxicologyAnatomy of the visual apparatus

Anatomy of the Eye Sclera The sclera is outermost layer of the eyeball. This review describes the anatomy and physiology of the eye and visual nervous system and includes a discussion of some of the more common toxins affecting vision in man.

To provide a better website experience, owlcation. Ten layers of cells in the retina can be seen microscopically. The arrangement of the retina makes it necessary for light to pass through the layers not sensitive to light first before it reaches the light-sensitive rods and cones.

The iris is a flat, thin, ring-shaped structure sticking in to the anterior chamber. The iris is the structure that determines the colour of the eye. Start Your Free Trial Today.

Muscles responsible for moving the eyeball are attached to the eyeball at the sclera. The anterior chamber is also known as anterior cavity.

Structures auxiliary to the eye

As the junction between skin and conjunctiva is approached, the hairs change their character to become eyelashes. It appears dark because the light passing into the eye is not reflected back to any great extent.

This unpigmented layer of the ciliary epithelium is continued forward over the back of the iris, where it acquires pigment and is called the posterior iris epithelium. It is the part of the retina where visual acuity is greatest. This supports the Maven widget and search functionality.

In humans, d&d 4.0 character sheet pdf the lens changes shape for near and for distant vision. The diagrams below show cross sections of the human eyeball. This article explores the anatomy of the eye looking at the different structures of the human eye and their function. The posterior Chamber is also referred to as the Vitreous body as indicated in the diagram below - anatomy of the eye.

Investigation of discrepancy between dark adaptation and electroretinographic findings in advanced stages. Cornea At the front of the eyeball, the sclera becomes the cornea. There is apparently no continuous renewal of these cells as with the epithelium, so that damage to this layer is a more serious matter. The posterior chamber is a larger area than the anterior chamber.

The central artery supplies the retina while the central vein drains the retina. The orbicularis and levator are striated muscles under voluntary control. It provides oxygen and nutrients to the inner eye and exerts fluid pressure that helps maintain the shape of the eye.

Two ligaments, the medial and lateral palpebral ligaments, attached to the orbit and to the septum orbitale, stabilize the position of the lids in relation to the globe. The sclera is essentially the continuation backward of the cornea, the collagen fibres of the cornea being, in effect, continuous with those of the sclera. In addition, drugs or toxins can destroy vision by damaging the visual nervous system. It is vitally important that the front surface of the eyeball, the cornea, remain moist.

The fovea is a small depression in the retina near the optic disc. The choroid continues at the front of the eyeball to form the ciliary body. The evaporation of the tears as they flow across the eye is largely prevented by the secretion of oily and mucous material by other glands.

It is located directly behind the iris and focuses light on to the retina. It is filled with fluid called aqueous humour. The ciliary body is the forward continuation of the choroid. The superficial layer is continuously being shed, and the layers are renewed by multiplication of the cells in the innermost, or basal, layer.

These two layers are to be regarded embryologically as the forward continuation of the retina, which terminates at the ora serrata. The main muscles of the eye are Lateral rectus, Medial rectus, Superior rectus and inferior rectus. Its main function is to keep the globe reasonably firm. Ocular damage in chloroquine therapy.